藝術文化Art & culture

塞維雅那舞(Sevillanas,本地通稱「西維拉那斯」)是西班牙最廣為世人熟知的民俗舞蹈,在大大小小的節日都會跳。值得注意的是這種舞蹈不盡是佛拉明哥舞。每年的四月節,西班牙婦女會穿上Traje Gitanas傳統服裝,性感地跳Sevillnas。塞維亞舞是由四段不同動作組成的雙人舞,每段略有間隔。其動作最有特色者為paseo(基本步)、pasadas (舞伴換位步)、remate (結束姿勢),而且在最後一拍上,歌、樂、舞三者同時瞬間停止,舞者擺出瀟灑而挑逗的姿勢,表現出求愛舞蹈的本質。 現今的塞維亞舞受佛拉明哥影響很深,大家傳跳的都是以此種風格為主。原始風味的,大概就只能看老人家跳鄰里舞會式的塞維亞舞,他們的手臂自然抬起,不講究外張而尾端內收的力感,腳步近似隨意,卻又緊貼旋律。伴奏採用一些簡單的打擊樂,歌唱近乎叫喊,樸拙有古意。 「sevillanas」原來應該是「seguidillas sevillanas」(塞維亞民謠)。 它源自於「seguidillas manchegas」(曼加民謠)。曼加一地就是西班牙最有名的人物 「吉訶德先生」(Don Quigote,或譯「唐吉訶德」)的家鄉。曼加地區的民謠向南傳入安達魯西亞(Andalucia),到了塞維亞,有塞維亞民謠。十九世紀時,形容詞「sevillanas」開始實詞化,便去掉「seguidillas」不用,直接稱呼此種音樂為sevillanas。前字尾加 ”s” 是由於通常整首塞維亞舞曲是由四段結構相同的歌(copla)組成,加上 ”s” 是表示複數形。

SEVILLANA
The sevillana is a colourful and exciting style of song and dance that originated in Castile and not in Seville, a variation from a style of dance known as the seguidilla. The sevillana is not flamenco, although today it is performed by flamenco artists who give it that special flamenco touch. This style of dance is performed at fiestas of all kinds throughout Spain, but especially during the feria, when women will wear the Traje Gitanas, the colourful polka-dot dresses that add a swirling character and grace to the dance. The dance can be very erotic and sensual, although the pair will never touch each other until the final moments when the man will put his arm around the waist of the woman to finish the dance. The sevillana was originally a courting dance where the man sets out to woo the woman in a display similar to two mating flamingos. In the old Spanish tradition, young couples were limited in there courting practises, the man would spend the night talking to his novia, through the iron grills of her door or window, and if they did get the chance to go for a walk, they would most definitely be chaperoned by the girl’s mother, sister, or whole family. The feria week would be the only time that the man could show his affection to the girl, asking her to accompany him in the dancing of sevillanas, and this is most probably why there is little physical contact, as the whole night would be watched over by her family. The sevillanas are performed to a set of carefully worked out steps of which there are at least nine different steps in each section and four sections in the overall dance. We hope the following glossary of terms and the charts explaining the sections of the dance will help, if not, do as the Andalucians do, get up and have a go.

佛拉明戈舞最初源起于西班牙南部的安达鲁西亚(Andalucia) 的吉普赛人,至今已有百余年的历史。吉普赛人本来就能歌善舞,长于乐器演奏,慢慢地,他们将这些特色与安达鲁西亚当地的音乐、舞蹈相融合,就成了今天既凄美且热情的佛拉明戈舞。这种乐舞融合了印度、阿拉伯、犹太,乃至于拜占庭的元素,后来又注入西班牙南部的养分,而居住在西班牙安达鲁西亚的吉普赛人,又称佛拉明戈人,使其定型并扬名。有人說Flamenco來自阿拉伯文"felag"(農夫)及"mengu"(逃難者)兩者的組合;有人說因為Carlos I來自Flandes(現今比利時、荷蘭及盧森堡),宮廷的歌手亦從Flandes來,所以這些歌手叫flamenco,他們的歌曲亦稱flamenco,後來就成為歌曲的名稱。 其實所謂的Flamenco是由三個部份所組成:cante (歌)、baile (舞)及toque (吉它彈奏)。一般認為Flamenco是由gitanos (吉普賽人) 所創造出來的,但不容否認,西班牙歷代居住在Andalucía的民族或多或少對flamenco都有影響。從原住民tartesos, árabes到後來發展出來的Andalucía民間的舞蹈、歌唱等。

Flamenco
Flamenco dance (baile) is a highly-expressive, Spanish dance form. The flamenco is a solo dance characterized by hand clapping, percussive footwork, and intricate hand, arm, and body movements. The dance is usually accompanied by a singer and guitar player.It includes cante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance), jaleo (vocalizations and chorus clapping), palma (handclapping) and pitos (finger snapping). With roots in Indian, Arabic, and Spanish culture, flamenco dance is known for its sweeping arm movements and rhythmic feet stomping.

Flamenco dance and the guitar music that accompanies it comes from southern Spain in the Andalusian region associated with the Roma or gypsy people. In Spain, the Roma are called Gitanos. Thought to have migrated from northwest India between the 9th and 14th centuries, Gitanos used tambourines, bells, and wooden castanets and incorporated it into the music. Flamenco is the result of Roma music mixed with the rich cultures of the Sephardic Jews and the Moors, also living in southern Spain. If you look closely at flamenco dance movements, you may recognize arm, hand, and foot movements that closely resemble those of classical Hindu dance from the Indian subcontinent. Flamenco dancers, known as bailaores and bailaoras, are serious and passionate. Typical of flamenco dance, a dancer will often stand motionless and free of expression for the first few moments of a song. The dancing often involves fierce stomping, sometimes made louder with percussion attachments on the shoes, and graceful arm movements. Castanets are sometimes held in the hands for clicking, and folding fans are occasionally used for visual impact.